Capt. Charlie's sister and 3 grandchildren
[By Glen Villa Jr., Last Revised July 17, 2011]

Captain Charley's sister was Mary Martinez. Mary Martinez was born May 19, 1843in Lockeford, San Joaquin County. Mary was the daughter of Chief Maximo, or Henry Maximo, and a unknown Indian woman from the Ione area. Chief Maximo was chief in the Lockeford area during the 1800’s. Mary Martinez was a half sister to Charlie Maximo, having different mothers.

In about 1882, Mary Maximo was residing in the Camanche area of Calaveras County. While in Camanche, Mary had a daughter Emma West born in about 1882.

In about 1896, Mary Maximo married a Mexican man named Jose Martinez. Mary and Jose Martinez had a son named Lorenzo Martinez in 1897or 1898, depending on the source. Lorenzo died on October 11, 1911 from Tuberculosis.

In 1910, Mary Martinez was residing with husband Jose Martinez in Township 2, Ione, of Amador County. Mary was 60 years old and Jose was 70. Mary and Jose had been married 14 years. It was the second marriage for both of them. According to the 1910 census, Mary was born near Lockeford, her mother was born in Ione and her father was born in Lockeford.

According to the 1930 Census, Mary Martinez was living with her brother Charlie Maximo in Township 2, Ione, of Amador County. Living with Charlie Maximo (76) was his sister Mary Martinez (80), niece Lavina Homer (20), Edna Homer (17) and stepson Ceasar Brown (43).

In 1936, Burt Aginsky collected ethnographic information from Mary Martinez, which was later published as Cultural Element Distributions:XXIV Central Sierra by the UC Press in 1943.

Mary Martinez, Mary Mattinas as it is spelled on the death certificate, died on December 28, 1946. The death records identify Mary’s birth place as Woodbridge, California. Mary’s father was identified as Chief Maxmore who was also born at Woodbridge. Mary’s cause of death was senility. When Mary Martinez died, she was such good friends with her sister-in-law Marta Maximo, she wanted to be buried with her and so Mary Martinez was buried next to her sister-in-law Marta Maximo in the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery.

Bernice Villa described Mary Martinez as a “short plump old lady with half a leg on her right side.” Bernice said Mary Martinez walked around using a kitchen chair as a walker. Mary had no teeth when Bernice knew her. Bernice remembered Mary grinding her acorn in a portable mortar and using a sifting basket to sift her flour. When Mary Martinez died her body was kept at Aza McCauley’s house until the funeral. The night before the funeral two medicine men from Forest Hill, Ira Suehead and Avery Suehead, danced and sang around the coffin.

Mary Martinez had several grandchildren, all were the children of her daughter Emma West.

By 1895, Emma West married a ¼ Indian man named Albert James McCauley. Emma and Albert McCauley had a son named Aza McCauley near Ione on July 5, 1895.

In about 1900, Emma was married to Indian from Volcano, Amador County, named Charley Man. Emma and Charley Man had a son named Alex Seaman, depending on the source Alex was born sometime between 1900 and 1904 in Ione, Amador County. Alex Seaman died on March 1, 1912 due to tuberculosis.

In 1905, Emma married an Indian man from Columbia, Tuolumne County, named Charles Homer, also called Charles Jack and Charlie Carson.

In 1910, Emma West was living in Township 2 of Amador County. Emma was residing with her husband Charley Hume (Homer). A two year old unnamed son was living with Emma and Charley, as were a 4 month old daughter (Lovina Homer) and sons from Emma’s previous marriages Esie (more commonly spelled Aza) McCauley and Alex Seaman. Emma was 28 years old at the time and born in Camanche, Calaveras County. Emma’s father was born near Ione and her mother was born in Lockeford. Emma spoke Indian.

Emma Houser as it is spelled on her death certificate died on August 23, 1914 from Tuberculosis.

Articles Concerning Mary Maximo Martinez

Amador Ledger
January 2, 1947
Indian Woman 111 Years Old, Dies in Jackson Valley
Tribal rites were held yesterday, January 1, 1947, were conducted in the Indian burying grounds at Jackson Valley for Mary Mattinas who died at the County Hospital in Jackson last Saturday, December 28th, 1946, at the age of 111. She is believed to have been the oldest living person in California prior to her passing.

She was a member of the Mieo-wuk tribe and was a sister of the lat Chief Charlie Maximo, who died March 26, 1942, at Ione. Mrs. Mattinas spent all of her life in and around Jackson Valley and Woodbridge in San Joaquin county. She was the mother of a large number of children, all of whom preceded her in death. Mary (as she was familiarly known by Indians and whites alike) had lived for many years with her late brother. Since his passing, she made her home with her grandson, Aza McCauley and family in Jackson Valley.

Her birth date has been enrolled officially as May 19, 1835, according to word-of-mouth stories of other aged Indian inhabitants of the valley and her own recollections. Provision for this procedure was made by an act of congress of May 18, 1928. At that time it was determined that she was to be listed as 4/4 degree of blood (pure blooded Indian.)

Mrs. Mary T. Warrington, welfare director of Amador county, sent Mary a letter of greetings on the occasion of her 101st birthday which read as follows: “To greet our lovable oldest citizen on the anniversary of her birth is a truly unusual privilege. Still a follower of her ancient Indian religion, which has enabled here across the years to greet each sunrise and its sunset with smiling countenance, with no doubtful chord that ‘all’s not well with the world.’

“Although our Mary does not speak much English, her understanding of people and her genial smile is a contribution to life. We know the worth of this dear old friend’s meeting and greeting, as if to make true the verse of Edgar Guest:

“I’d like to think that here and there,
When I am gone, there shall remain
A happier spot that might have not
Existed had I toiled for gain;
That someone’s cheery voice and smile
Shall prove that I had been worth while;
That I had paid with something fine
My debt to God for life divine.”

So a word of good cheer to our Mary, our oldest citizen; may you stay many years longer before you vanish into the stars.”

And now Mary has “vanished into the stars” and according to tribal custom, she has been buried with her descendants.

Amador Dispatch
January 3, 1947
Aged Indian Woman Buried Wednesday With Tribal Rites Death came last Saturday, December 28th, to claim the life of Mary Mattinas, venerable member of the Mieowuk Indian tribe, who passed away at the hospital in this city within a few hours following her admission. Mrs. Mattinas was credited with being more than 110 years of age, federal records indicating that she was born in the Jackson Valley on May 19, 1835.

Despite her advanced age Mrs. Mattinas had enjoyed the activities of excellent health up to the time when she was stricken and claimed by death. She had survived a large family of children and her brother, Chief Charley Maximo, who passed away in 1942. Since that time she had made her home with her grandson, Aza McCauley, of the Jackson Valley. The period of her lifetime had been spent in the Jackson Valley and at Woodbridge in San Joaquin county, and she was familiarly known to residents of this district as a personage of exceptional dignity. She was possessed of a keen recollection of the early-day history of this district, recalling to intimates many of the incidents that transpired before the coming of white folk to this county.

The remains were taken in charge by J. J. Daneri and Son and the funeral was held on Wednesday, burial being attended by the tribal rites of her race. Interment occurred at the Indian burial ground I the Jackson Valley where she was laid at final rest beside members of her family that had preceded her in death.

Sacramento Bee
January 3, 1947
Jackson (Amador Co.) Jan. 3. – Ancient pagan ceremonies marked the burial of Mary Mattinas reputedly 111, in Indian burying ground in Jackson Valley.

An Indian held in high esteem by the Mieouwk Tribe officiated in the lengthy ceremony. First the casket was lowered into the grave and was covered, forming a mound. Beads, trinkets and prized earthly possessions of the deceased were placed in the grave.

A blanket was spread over the mound and relatives, one by one even to those distantly removed, prostrated themselves on the blanket. Other relatives kept a constant wail. The Indian officiating with two sticks touched the head, hands, soles and other parts of the body of the prostrate relative at intervals, chanting the while,. This is known as “desinning” by the tribe.

The tribal custom makes it mandatory that someone be at the side of the casket constantly before the funeral and this person must keep up mourning and wailing at all times.

The three grandchildren of Captain Charlie’s sister living at this time would have been Aza McCauley, Lovina Homer, and Edna Homer.

Aza McCauley

Aza McCauley was born July 5, 1895 in Amador County to Albert James McCauley, 1/4 Indian from Sacramento County, and Emma West. Albert McCauley's father was George McCauley, a White man and his mother was named Sarah, a 1/2 breed from Alameda County. Emma West was the daughter of Mary Martinez.

In 1910, Aza McCauley was living in Township 2 of Amador County with his mother Emma West and step father Charley Hume (Homer). Esie (more commonly spelled Aza) McCauley was 8 years old at the time. Aza McCauley was born near Ione.

In 1918, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County.

January 14, 1918, Edward Gifford writes to Aza McCauley sending him photographs of Aza which Gifford took during his recent visit and that Gifford hoped to visit Captain Charlie. (see Records of the Department of Anthropology, Bancroft Library)  Edward Gifford took two photographs of Aza McCaulley, 15-6170 and 15-6171.

On August 24, 1918, Aza McCaulley registered for the draft. According to the selective service records, Aza was born July 5, 1897 near Ione. Aza was employed at the Hoover Hop Yards near Elk Grove. Aza was described as tall, medium build, brown eyes, black with red streak in front. Aza’s home was in Ione.

In 1920, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Supplement #1 Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza McCauley played catcher on the Ione Merchants baseball team during the 1920’s.

In 1922, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was employed as a laborer and was Republican affiliation.

Aza married Elena Walters about 1922, a Northern Miwok from the Camanche area. Aza McCauley spoke the Plains Miwok dialect. Elena McCauley spoke the Camanche dialect of Northern Miwok and some Plains Miwok that she learned while living in Pleasanton.

In October of 1924, Aza McCauley was one of the many Indians from Ione who attended the First California Indian Festival. The festival was organized by Fredrick Collett with the Indian Board of Cooperation and was intended to raise awareness of issues facing the California Indians.

In 1926 and 1928, Aza McCauley was listed in the East Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was employed as a laborer and was Republican affiliation.

By 1930, Aza McCauley was residing in Township 2, Ione, of Amador County. Living with Aza was his wife Elena McCauley.

In 1930, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was employed as a laborer and was Republican affiliation.

In 1932, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was Republican affiliation.

In 1934, Aza McCauley was listed in the East Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was employed as a laborer and was Republican affiliation.

In 1936, 1938, 1940, 1942 and 1944, Aza McCauley was listed in the South Ione Precinct of the Index to Registration Affidavits Amador County. Aza was employed as a laborer and was Republican affiliation.

Several people remembered Aza as a constable in Ione during the late 1940’s to early 1950’s timeframe, however Amador County records do not indicate Aza as the Constable in Ione. It is possible that Aza was an assistant Constable of some sort. In 1950, Aza McCauley ran for Constable of Township 2, Ione, of Amador County. Aza received 28 votes in East Ione, 19 votes in North Ione, 56 votes in South Ione, 15 votes in West Ione, 5 votes in Buena Vista, and 2 absentee votes for a total of 125 votes. Aza had the third highest votes with James L. Taylor receiving 393 votes, Melvin P. Accher receiving 49 votes, and Wm. Boshaw receiving 12 votes.

Sometime in the 1950’s, Ollie Alex asked Aza McCauley to be the caretaker of the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery. Aza accepted the role and cared for the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery until he became too weak. Once Aza became too weak to care for the cemetery, he asked Nicolas Villa Sr. to take over as caretaker of the cemetery.

Between 1956 and 1960, Catherine Callaghan recorded Aza McCauley speaking the Plains Miwok language. Over 5 hours of recordings are part of the collection, LA 8, at the Berkeley Language Center, University of California, Berkeley.

On January 6, 1965, the Catholic Diocese of Oakland gave the Ohlone Indian Burial Ground to the American Indian Historical Society. To commemorate the event, a new memorial was dedicated on April 3, 1965 and a eulogy in the Miwok language was given by Louis Oliver, Aza McCauley, John Porter, and Clarence Burris.

Aza McCauley died on October 21, 1965 and was buried in the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery. Nicolas Villa Sr. and Bernice Villa stated that Aza wanted to be buried in the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery because he didn’t like the medicine man (Charlie West) buried in the Buena Vista Indian Cemetery. When Aza died, Ira Suehead and Avery Suehead from Forest Hill came to Ione to dance and sing around Aza’s coffin.

Articles Concerning Aza McCauley

Amador Dispatch
October 28, 1965
Aza McCauley
Aza McCauley, a native of Jackson who had lived in Amador county all his life, died in Ione October 21. He was born July 5, 1896.

Services were held in his Ione home last Monday, Rev. J. Monroe Warner officiated, Interment was in the Indian Cemetery in Ione.

Mr. McCauley is survived by his wife Ellena of Jackson Valley; he was the brother of Edna Zinberd of Auburn and Marco McCauley of Reno.

Amador Dispatch
March 5, 1968
Ellena McCauley
Native of Jackson Valley Ellena McCauley, 85, died Feb. 25 in Amador Hospital.

Graveside services were held yesterday (Feb. 28) morning at the Jackson Valley Indian Cemetery near Ione.

Mrs. McCauley, whose late husband Aza died in 1965, had lived in the county throughout life. She left no known relatives.

Lovina Homer

Lovina Homer was born February 12, 1910 to Charley Homer and Emma West. Emma West was the daughter of Mary Martinez. Charley Homer was an Indian from Tuolumne County and was also known as Charley Jack, Charley Carson.

In 1910, Lovina Homer was living in Township 2 of Amador County with her mother Emma West and father Charley Hume (Homer). Lovina was 4 months old at the time.

By 1923, Lovina Homer was placed in the Ione Indian Home or also called the Ione Indian Orphanage. The orphanage was operated by Free Methodist Reverend Charles Fish. The orphanage was populated by several Indian children throughout northern California. In many of the cases, the children were taken from their grandparents who were rearing them since the parents were deceased. This upset some of the Indians in Ione but they could not do anything to stop it. The orphanage received funding from the federal government for providing for the Indian children.

By 1928, Lovina Homer was living with her father Charles Homer also called Charles Jack. Also during the 1928 school year, Lovina attended school at the Sherman Institute in Riverside, California.

According to the 1930 Census, Lavina was living with her grandmother Mary Martinez and her great uncle Charlie Maximo in Township 2, Ione, of Amador County. Living with Charlie Maximo (76) was his sister Mary Martinez (80), niece Lavina Homer (20), Edna Homer (17) and stepson Ceasar Brown (43).

Lavina married Caesar Brown, born April 21, 1886.

Lovina Homer Brown died on November 19, 1930 in Ione due to toxemia of pregnancy. Lovina’s husband at the time was Caesar Brown.

Articles Concerning Lovina Homer

IoneValley Echo
February 3, 1923
Local and Personal
 …The girls at the Indian Orphan Home are learning Domestic Science and one, Lavina, has made her third cake, and it was good…

NOVEMBER 21, 1930
Lovina Brown, young Indian woman of the Ione section, passed away at her home there on Tuesday following an attack of pneumonia. She was a native of the Jackson Valley, aged twenty years, and had spent practically all her lifetime in that section. A husband survives. The funeral will be held at Ione on Friday and interment will take place in the Indian burial grounds there.

Edna Homer

Edna Homer was born May 10, 1912 to Charley Homer and Emma West. Edna was the full sister of Lovina Homer and half sister to Aza McCauley. By 1928, Edna was residing with her father Charles Jack or Charles Homer. In the 1928 school year, Edna Homer attended the Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. In June of 1930, Edna Homer married Lawrence Starkey. Edna was 17 at the time and Lawrence was 24 at the time. Edna married two Starkey brothers from Auburn and had several children.

Articles Concerning Edna Homer

Amador Dispatch
January 2, 1931
Marriage Licenses
June 1930 Lawrence Starkey, 24, Auburn and Edna Homer, 17, Ione.