Pronouns

19.  The independent pronouns.

The system of person in the independent pronouns consists of seven distinctions of person.  The first person plural, we, is divided into two, one that excludes, and one that includes, the person addressed.  The independent pronouns, in the subjective case, are as follows:

Present Tense of Independent Pronouns

English
Miwok
I
Kanni'
Thou
Mi'
He,she,it
Issakә'
We (excl.)
Massi'
We (incl.) Ichchi'
You
Miko'
They
Issakkoo


Independent Pronouns Change with Case

Case
I
We (excl.)
We (incl.) Thou
You
He,She,It
They
Subjective
kanni
massi
ichchi' mi'
miko'
issakә
issakkoo
Possessive
kanәŋ
masiiŋ
ichiiŋ miiniiŋ
mikooŋ
issakәәŋ
issakkooŋ
Objective
kanniiy
massiy
ichchiiy miiniiy
mikooy
issakәәy
issakkooy
Locative
kannii massi ichchii miinii mikoo issakәә issakkoo
Ablative
kannimmә' massimmә'
ichimmә' miinimmә'
mikommu'
issakәmmә'
issakkoommә'

Use of the Independent pronouns
Independent pronouns and demonstratives do not appear to be a great deal used in Miwok.  Since both the subject and the object of a verb are usually incorporated in the verb form as pronomial suffixes, it is evident that the independent forms will not often be grammatically necessary, and when they do occur it will be for emphasis rather than clearness.

Often, the independent pronouns are used as modifiers of nouns (as in we children, those girls).  In such sentences, one can see how scrupulously the principle of agreement is observed in person as well as in case between the noun and its modifiers.

Sentences illustrating the use of independent pronouns:

English
Miwok
I am sweating too.
kanni' echa' helakŋem
It is just like my house.
kanәŋ kocha' wichit
The baby is crawling to me. eweypat kanniiy eheelә'
You play first!
Mi' awwini hoyyani!
Just like your house.
miinәŋ kocha wichi'nәә
Somebody is talking about you.
miiniiy manakko halmәppun
you fellows' father
mikooŋ әpә'mok
our house
ichiiŋ koca'chәә
He is biting himself.
issakә yullәpuksuu
That's his father-in-law.
issakәŋ hewwasә'sәә
their heels
issakkoŋ tәŋŋisә'koo


Possessives in the Nouns
The following are examples of how nouns are changed with possession.

English
Suffix
Example
My
-nti, -t
Paapat (my grandfather)
Thy
-nәә Paapanәә (your grandfather)
His,her,its
-sәә Paapasәә (his/her grandfather)
Our (incl.)
-chәә Paapachәә (all of our grandfather)
Our(excl.)
-maas
Paapamaas (our grandfather)
Your
-mook
Paapamook (all of your grandfather)
Their
-koo
Paapakoo (their grandfather)

Example sentences that include the possessive use of nouns.
English
Miwok
my shoes are damp
panәәә soloomet
Her eyes are cross-eyed.
sәttә'sә lummutu'
The dog is licking my hand.
chuku lakyәә ukkusuntiy
My daughter kanәәŋ luput
your son minәәŋ aŋsi'nәә
dog's tail chukuŋ suuki'sәә
man's dog naŋŋaŋ chuku'sәә
our (incl.) tree leekachәә
your hair minәәŋ hannanәә
my hair
kanәәŋ hannat
horse dung
kawaayuŋ kanaaṭә'sәә
cow dung kanaaṭә'sәә paakaŋ
The brown dog eats meat takaaki chuku әwwә hukkuy
to their house
kochaatook
at our grandfather's house paapachchәәt
at the man's house naŋŋaat
from my home kochammәt
to thy house kochaatoonәә
my house (object) kochantiy
in my house kochaatoot
of you Indians your house miwwәtokniŋ kochamook